Wednesday, June 24, 2009

Volkswagen Schwimmwagen

Volkswagen Type 166 'Schwimmwagen'



Production: 15,000 (1942-1944)


4-cyl. boxer, air cooled 1,131 cc, 25 hp @ 3,000 rpm


4-speed manual
2-speed transfer case;
4WD only on 1st gear / reverse

Wheelbase: 200 cm (78.7 in)

Length: 382.5 cm (150.6 in)

Width: 148 cm (58.3 in)

Height: 161.5 cm (63.6 in)

Curb weight: 910 kg (1,345 kg GVW)

Fuel capacity: 50 L (13.2 US gal; 11.0 imp gal)

Related: VW type 86 & 87

The VW Type 128 and 166 Schwimmwagen (literally Floating / Swimming Car) were amphibious all-wheel-drive off-roaders, used extensively by the German Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS during the Second World War.

The Type 166 is the most mass-produced amphibious car in history, and arguably the most capable light military wheeled off-roader in World War II.


Volkswagen Schwimmwagens used the engine and mechanicals of the VW Type 86 four-wheel drive prototype of the Kübelwagen and the Type 87 four-wheel drive 'Kübel/Beetle' Command Car, which in turn were based on the platform of the civilian Volkswagen Beetle. However, Erwin Komenda, Ferdinand Porsche's first car body designer, was forced to develop an all new unitized bodytub structure, since the utterly flat floorpan chassis of the existing VW vehicles was totally unsuited to smooth movement through water. Komenda patented his ideas for the swimming car at the German Patent office.

The earliest Type 128 prototype was based on the full-length Kübelwagen chassis with a 240 cm (7.9 ft) wheelbase. Pre-production units of the 128, fitted with custom welded bodytubs, demonstrated that this construction was too weak for tough off-roading, had insufficient torsional rigidity, and easily suffered hull-ruptures at the front cross-member, as well as in the wheel-wells. This was obviously unacceptable for an amphibious vehicle. The large-scale production models (Type 166) were therefore made smaller, and had a wheel-base of only 200 cm (6.6 ft).

VW Schwimmwagens were both produced by the Volkswagen factory at Fallersleben / Wolfsburg, as well as by Porsche's facilities in Stuttgart; with the bodies (or rather hulls) produced by Ambi Budd in Berlin. From 1941 through 1944 a total of 15,584 Type 166 Schwimmwagen cars were produced; 14,276 at Fallersleben and 1,308 by Porsche. Given these numbers, the VW 166 is the most mass-produced amphibious car in history. Only 163 are known by the Schwimmwagen Registry to remain today, and only 13have survived without restoration work.


All Schwimmwagen were four wheel drive only on first gear (and reverse gears with some models) and had ZF self-locking differentials on both front and rear axles. Just like the Kübelwagen, this heavy-duty 4x4 off-roader had portal gear rear hubs that gave better ground clearance, while at the same time reducing drive-line torque stresses with their gear reduction at the wheels.

When crossing water a screw propeller could be lowered down from the rear deck engine cover. When in place a simple coupling provided drive straight from an extension of the engine's crankshaft. This meant that screw propulsion was only available going forward. For reversing in the water there was the choice of using the standard equipment paddle or running the land drive in reverse, allowing the wheel-rotation to take the vehicle back ever so slowly. The front wheels doubled up as rudders, so steering was done with the steering wheel both on land and on water.


Hermann Göring with a Schwimmwagen at Carinhall

German officers in a Schwimmwagen in France in 1944

Schwimmwagen from the December 1944 issue of the Intelligence Bulletin

VW Schwimmwagen at RAF, Duxford


VW Schwimmwagen

Schwimmwagen, Army Museum Dresden


Volkswagen Schwimmwagen

A Schwimmwagen loaded with Panzerfaust 60 anti-tank weapons.

External Links:

U.S. Intelligence report on German Schwimmwagen

The VW-Schwimmwagen Registry

Schwimmwagen enthusiast site

Schwimmwagen Photos of the Schwimmwagen at the Canada War Museum in Ottawa

UK Schwimmwagen owners site

Volkswagen Kübelwagen

VW type 82 'Kübelwagen'

Manufacturer: Volkswagen

Also called: 'Bucket / Tub Car'

Production: 50,435 (1940 - 1945)

Assembly: KDF-Stadt (= Wolfsburg)

Predecessor: VW type 62

Successor: VW type 181 'Thing'

Class: Military Vehicle

Body style(s):

4-door utility roadster

Layout RR layout

Platform VW type 1 Kdf-Wagen


aircooled flat-4,
985 cc (23 hp) /
1,131 cc (25 hp)


4-speed manual;
self-locking differential

Wheelbase 240 cm (94.5 in)
Length 374 cm (147.2 in)
Width 160 cm (63.0 in)


165 cm (65.0 in) (top up);
111 cm (43.7 in) collapsible

Curb weight 715 kg (1,576 lb) (GVW 1,160 kg)

Fuel capacity 30 L (7.9 US gal; 6.6 imp gal)


VW 166 'Schwimmwagen'

VW 276 Schlepperfahrzeug

The Volkswagen Kübelwagen (short for Kübelsitzwagen, meaning "bucket-seat car") was a military vehicle designed by Ferdinand Porsche and built by Volkswagen during World War II for use by the German military (both Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS). Based heavily on the Volkswagen Beetle, it was prototyped as the Type 62, but eventually became known internally as the Type 82.

With its rolling chassis and mechanics built at Stadt des KdF-Wagens (Stadt des Kraft durch Freude Wagens, now Wolfsburg) and its body built by US-owned firm Ambi Budd in Berlin, the Kübelwagen was for the Germans what the jeep was for the Allies.


The Kübelwagen on the Eastern Front in 1943.

Volkswagen Kübelwagen

VW Kübelwagen rear

Although Adolf Hitler discussed with Ferdinand Porsche the possibility of military application of the Volkswagen as early as April 1934, it wasn't until January 1938, that high ranking Third Reich army officials formally approached Porsche about designing an inexpensive, light-weight military transport vehicle that could be operated reliably both on- and off-road in even the most extreme conditions, suggesting that the Beetle could provide the basis for such a vehicle.

Porsche began work on the project immediately, having a prototype of the vehicle ready within the month, but realized during development that it wouldn't be enough to reinforce the Beetle's chassis to handle the stresses that military use would put on it. In order to guarantee adequate off-road performance of a two-wheel driven vehicle with a 1,000 cc FMCV 1 engine, it would have to be light-weight. In fact, the army had stipulated a laden weight of 950 kg including four battle-dressed troops, which meant that the vehicle itself should not weigh more than 550 kg. Porsche therefore sub-contracted Trutz, an experienced military coachbuilder to help out with the body design.

Developmental testing by the military began after a presentation of the prototypes designated as Type 62 in November 1938. Despite lacking four wheel drive, a mainstay of the American military Jeeps, the vehicle proved very competent at maneuvering its way over rough terrain, even in a direct comparison with a contemporary standard German army 4x4, and the project was given the green light for further development. The vehicle's light weight and ZF self-locking differential compensated for the lack of 4X4 capabilities.

Further development of the Type 62 took place during 1939, including a more angular body design; and pre-production models were field-tested in the invasion of Poland, that started in September that year. Despite their overall satisfaction with the vehicle's performance, military commanders demanded that a few important changes be made: the lowest speed of the vehicle had to be reduced from 8 km/h to 4 km/h as an adjustment to the pace of marching soldiers. Secondly it needed some improvement of its off road ability. Porsche responded to both requests by mounting new axles with gear-reduction hubs, providing the car with more torque and more ground-clearance all at once. Revised dampers, 16-inch wheels and a limited slip differential, as well as countless small modifications completed the specification. In order to reflect the changes, the vehicle was re-named Type 82.

Full scale production of the Type 82 Kübelwagen started in February 1940, as soon as the VW factories had become operational. No major changes took place until production ended in 1945, only small modifications were implemented—mostly eliminating unnecessary parts and reinforcing some which had proved unequal to the task. Prototype versions were assembled with four-wheel drive (Type 86) and different engines, but none offered a significant increase in performance or capability over the existing Type 82 and the designs were never implemented. As of March 1943, the car received a revised dash and the bigger 1,131 cc engine developed for the Schwimmwagen that produced more torque and power than the original 985 cc unit. When Volkswagen production ceased at the end of the war, 50,435 Kübelwagen vehicles had been produced and the vehicle had proven itself to be surprisingly useful, reliable, and durable.

VW resurrected the basic Kübelwagen design several decades after the war as the 1969 Type 181, developed for the German Federal Armed Forces and later also produced for the civilian market known as "Thing" in the US, "Trekker" in the UK and "Safari" in Mexico. Although similar in looks and design, almost no parts were interchangeable with the type 82.

Technology and performance

VW Type 82 with visible engine in Sicily (1943).

When the German military took delivery of the first vehicles, they immediately put them to the test on- and off-road in snow and ice to test their capability at handling European winters; several four-wheel-drive vehicles were used as reference points. The two-wheel drive Kübelwagen surprised even those who had been a part of its development, as it handily out-performed the other vehicles in nearly every test. Most notably - thanks to its smooth, flat underbody—the Kübel would propel itself much like a motorised sled when its wheels were sinking into sand, snow or mud, allowing it to follow tracked vehicles with remarkable tenacity.

In November 1943, the U.S. military conducted a series of tests as well on several Type 82s they had captured in North Africa; they concluded that the vehicle was simpler, easier to manufacture and maintain, faster, and more comfortable for four passengers than the U.S. Jeeps.

At the same time another Kübelwagen also captured in North Africa had been dissected in Britain by engineers of the Humber Car Company, whose report was equally unfavourable and dismissive.

Among the design features that contributed to the Kübelwagen's performance were:

Light weight - although over a foot longer than the Willys MB, it was over 300 kg (some 700 lb) lighter

(the car was even lighter than the smallest US military jeep ever accepted for service: the M422 'Mighty Mite')

Very flat and smooth underbody, that allowed the car to slide over the surface it was traversing, if need be:

Considerable ground clearance - roughly 28 cm (11 in) —in part thanks to:

The use of portal gear hub reduction, providing more torque and ride height simultaneously

Independent suspension on all four wheels

Self-locking differential, limiting slippage and retaining traction

Apart from that the air-cooled engine proved highly tolerant of hot and cold climates, and naturally invulnerable to bullet holes in the absence of a radiator.

Only for starting under winter conditions, a specially volatile starting fuel was required, contained in a small auxiliary fuel tank.

Also the body of the vehicle could easily be modified to special purposes, since it was not a load-bearing part of the structure of the vehicle.

The Kübelwagen could reach a top speed of 80 kilometers per hour.

Body variants

Type 82E – Kübelwagen chassis / Beetle body.

Type 82E rear

The following body types and variants of the Type 82 were produced:

Type 62: Prototype Kübelwagen, constructed from May 15, 1938; pre-production models (1939) field tested in the invasion of Poland

Type 67: 2-stretcher ambulance; Type 60 Beetle chassis with modified Type 82 body

Type 82/0: Basic four seater

Type 82/I: Three-seat radio car

Type 82/2: Sirencar (Siemens motordriven siren mounted on passenger side in place of the rear seat)

Type 82/3: Mock-up armoured vehicle/command car with machinegun-fitted turret over the cabin

Type 82/5: Kübelwagen chassis with the Type 60 LO Lieferwagen (open pickup truck) body

Type 82/6: Tropical version sedan-body box van

Type 82/7: Three-seat 'Command car' made up of a Type 82 chassis, fitted with a Beetle body and roll-up canvas roof section. These three-seaters had a co-drivers seat with fully reclining backrest for the commander.

Type 82/8: Like Type 82/0 but had an open body made of wood

Type 82/E: Kübelwagen chassis with Beetle body (688 manufactured)

Type 86: All-wheel drive prototype (6 fabricated)

Type 87: 'Kommandeurwagen' Type 86 4x4 Kübelwagen chassis with Beetle command car body. Fitted with running boards, under-hood-mounted spare tire (accompanied by a gas can, a jack, a small tool kit, and a shovel), and widened fenders for its larger-diameter Kronprinz (Crown Prince) off-road tires, some were provided to preferred officers, who could push through virtually any kind of terrain with them (667 produced)

Type 89: Fitted with an experimental automatic transmission

Type 98: 4x4 Kübelwagen-chassis with a Beetle body

Type 106: Fitted with an experimental transmission (assumed different from the Type 89)

Type 107: Fitted with a turbocharger

Type 115: Fitted with a supercharger

Type 126: Fitted with a fully-synchronized gearbox (assumed different from the Type 278)

Type 155/1: Half-track / snow-track Kübelwagen prototype. Pictures of several track-set designs exist,

although it is possible that these were consecutively fitted to the same prototype.

Trials proved that the Type 155 was able to cover the most difficult terrain, but the modifications necessary to the standard Kübelwagen were extensive and the resulting vehicle was both very slow and forbiddingly inefficient.

Type 157: Railway car equipment, used for Types 82 and 87

Type 164: Six-wheeled, twin engine, dual-control prototype; never entered production

Type 177: Fitted with a 5-speed transmission (as opposed to the standard 4-speed unit)

Type 179: Fitted with fuel-injected Volkswagen engine

Type 198: Fitted with a PTO and auxiliary gearbox for starting the engines of armoured fighting vehicles

Type 235: Fitted for power by an electric motor

Type 239: Fitted for power by a wood-gas generator mounted on the nose (also listed as Type 230)

Type 240: Fitted for power by bottled gas

Type 276: Type 82 fitted with a towing hook to pull a 37 PAK gun

Type 278: Fitted with synchronized gearbox

Type 307: Fitted with a heavy-duty carburetor

Type 309: Prototype fitted with a diesel engine

Type 331: Prototype fitted for power by a "native fuel system" (acetylene gas) engine (also listed as Type 231)

Type 332: Fitted for power by anthracite coal

Additional information

The Kübelwagen concept was the basis for other projects: the Australian Volkswagen Country Buggy, the VW Type 181 (The Thing) and the Porsche Jagdwagen.

The object resembling a helmet, often seen in the left front bumper of many Kübelwagen (and Kommandeurwagen), is actually a Notek black-out driving light.

The German word Kübelwagen is an abbreviation, fully pronounced Kübelsitzwagen (bucket-seat car).

The car was drivable in the Java level and was featured in Body Harvest on the N64.

It still used the name Kübelwagen in the game.

The car was also drivable in the game Call of Duty 3, in particular the Eder Dam map.

1943 Kübelwagen 25hp 1131cc

VW type 82 at Gmünd

External links:

M151 Mutt

Monday, June 22, 2009

1963 Volkswagen Type II Transporter Split Window.

Split Standard

By Breanne McMullen

Watching the crowd applaud and the judge hand you the award for Judges' Choice is something for which many vintage car owners strive. This dream happened for Brad Warren of Decatur, Illinois when he debuted his 1963 Split Window Bus at the 1999 The Real Source's Beetle Funfest. He was the first ever to achieve this prize from this inaugural event. His Type II went on to win both Judges' and President's Choice in 2003 at the same event. Just a few miles down the road, in the little town of Effingham, Illinois, was where the little Bus began its story. Robert LeCrone, a local Illinois tool and die maker, originally bought this Bus right off the lot in 1963 and maintained it as his daily driver for nearly 30 years before his death. In the early 1990s the Split Window found its second owner and finally came to rest with Warren in 1997. Thankfully the original owner was a perfectionist and the harsh Midwestern winters hadn't eaten away at the original metal parts.

Without having to replace large parts of the pan or body, the cosmetics could begin, and the painting was completed ten months later. "Splitty," as Warren affectionately calls his Bus, was coated five times with factory Blue White and Turquoise from PPG. At this point, Warren had the chance to give the dashboard the same attention he paid to the exterior, but he opted instead to keep the integrity of the original paint job and kept the original owners service stickers intact. Warren said, "Seeing the Bus in the bright sun after the paint job" made it worth all of the sweat and money.

Deciding to wait on the engine and tranny, Warren took his Bus to Mac's Custom Interiors in Decatur, Illinois, for the ultimate workup. Mac's was able to upholster the interior to factory specifications by matching colors and styles with photos and old brochures from 1963. The result is an impressive ComoGreen vinyl interior that rivals those that sat on the original showroom floor. Mac hung a light gray Wolfsburg West cloth headliner and to seal the deal, Warren restored the fabric interior panels by retaining the original Phosphor sections and replacing certain areas with materials that matched the seats.

Even with a great vinyl and paint combination, Warren's "Splitty" was missing the middle seat. A quest was founded and Kent Zschoche of St. Louis located a 1963-only seat to do the job. The front and middle floor mats were the original, from-the-factory set and were in great condition, much like the rust-free underpinnings.

With all that work on vinyl, paint jobs and color schemes, Warren moved on to the meat of the restoration: the engine and tranny. The engine buildup stayed retro by fitting the 1500cc model with a NOS Solex 30 PICT1 carburetor with an original governor, for a "period look." The transmission and reduction gears were the original factory-issued parts. All of this beauty rides atop 6.40 x 15-inch Firestone bias-ply tires from Coker Tire in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and it all comes to a halt with the help of BFY's German brake kits and new clutch. Little details like chrome plating on the hubcaps and tail light bezels adds to the overall look of this VW.

Being a self-proclaimed VW purist, Brad Warren is a member of Vintage VW Club of America and VW Club of America and has been active in these clubs even before owning "Splitty." Warren says that one of the best parts about owning a Vintage VW is "the favorable comments that you get from other people or the memorable stories people share." Ever since his father purchased a VW in 1981, Warren has been a fan of the stock Vintage VWs and plans to pass along the tradition in his own family.

Special thanks to Jamie Kikolla for the bodywork restoration done on this bus.

Two Judge's trophies and one President's Choice award later and this Split Window can officially be called a showstopper.

Warren paid attention to the detail of the tail light bezels on this bus and had them chrome plated. It makes for a nice last glance when he pulls around you.

"Splitty" was originally owned by a perfectionist who took great care to be sure it was kept clean from rust and other weather hazards. The body was in excellent shape when the restoration began.

When the exterior was painted Blue White and Turquoise, the dash was left alone. Warren wanted to keep the original service stickers--placed on the factory-painted dashboard--in plain view.

A custom Como Green vinyl interior, copied from old brochures to get that fresh-from-the-factory look, was created by Mac's Custom Interiors. The floor mats were the original set and were in great condition, so they stayed in place.

A light gray cloth headliner and restored fabric interior panels compliment the custom seats. By retaining the original Phosphor sections and using materials that matched the seats, the interior panels were restored.

The retro 1500cc model engine was fitted with a NOS Solex 30 PICT1 carburetor and the transmission and reduction gears were the original factory-issued parts.

Chrome-plated hubcaps and Firestone bias-ply tires keep the ride to VW shows smooth. Even the rims scream the theme of this Bus: pure stock.

Click Here: To visit VWTrends Web

Window to Perfection

After nearly two years of painstaking restoration, Dane G.'s 23-Window Bus is now set to turn heads wherever it rolls.

By Karl Funke

After nearly two years of painstaking restoration, Dane Gladden's 23-Window Bus is now set to turn heads wherever it rolls.

Easily the most utilitarian of the original VW models, the Type II, or "Bus" as most of us know it, enjoys a niche all its own in the world of automotive enthusiasm. While the Beetle's universal appeal lies simultaneously in both its role as a historical icon and a shoestring-budget hot rod, the Bus exudes an aura of appeal that even its most enthusiastic supporters can't exactly put a finger on. They like them because, well...because they're Buses, and there really hasn't been any other vehicle quite like them in the annals of automotive history. One such enthusiast is Valencia, California, resident Dane Gladden, owner of this fine 1958 23 Window.

Gladden is not new to the VW scene. In 1998 Dane found himself wanting a VW Bus in the worst sort of way. "I've just always liked the overall look of a Bus," Gladden said. "There's not a lot of them out there, so when you see one out on the road you really take notice."

To relieve the fever, he purchased a 1967 Sea Blue and White 21-Window which he sent directly to Lenny Copp of West Coast Classic Restoration in Fullerton, Calif., for a full, detailed cleanup. While the end product was as good as they come, for some reason this Bus didn't do it totally for Gladden and a short time later he asked Lenny to sell it for him.

Our story now jumps ahead to 2001. Amid the chaos that followed the tragic events of September 11, Gladden saw the stock market tanking badly with no hopeful end in sight, so he sold off a good portion of his more volatile portfolio holdings and invested the hard cash in precious metals--that is, the kind of precious metals cast and pressed on the assembly lines in Wolfsburg. Collaborating with WCCR's Copp, Gladden laid plans to purchase three more vintage Type II hulks for pan-up restoration. According to Copp, Gladden gave him cash up front with a simple request: find, buy and restore three more vintage Type II vehicles. The Bus pictured here, a 1958 23-Window, is the first of those projects to come to fruition. The other two, currently works in progress, are a 1960 23-Window, which will be the next to be completed, and a 1960 Double Cab.

A confirmed vintage enthusiast, Dane naturally wanted this Bus to be as close to it's factory fresh state as WCCR could make it. "I told Lenny to make it as original as possible," he said. "I even had him keep the original 36-hp engine." Since WCCR is a one-stop restoration shop, Copp and his crew got busy on all aspects. Rafael Gutierrez, WCCR's top guy, spent days stripping the Bus to its components and prepared the sheetmetal for a trip to the body shop. Probably no other vehicle in history is more labor intensive when it comes to getting the panels straight, but WCCR's body-buffing brothers Shorty and Hugo got busy on the body and paint. Glazurit Line 22 paint was employed to give the Bus its beautiful two-tone finish, L-53 Sealing Wax Red and L-73 Chestnut Brown.

When the paintwork was finished the Bus went to WCCR's upholstery shop. Upholstery artisan Alex Hernandez began with a genuine German wool headliner. If you look closely, you can see the seams on the liner below the side windows; not many people know that this is the way the original headliner was made, but it goes to show the level of detail that went into this Bus. Hernandez also replicated the original interior upholstery to return the seats, carpeting and interior panels as close to their original state as humanly possible. The seats and panels were skinned in light brown and beige vinyl, while the carpet in the rear is actual German Square Weave like the factory used--nothing else will do. New moldings were used on all the panels, and to finish it all off the upholsterer covered the sunroof with new brown German canvas.

At the time of this writing the restoration is less than a month complete. Gladden's newest 23-Window wonder made its public debut at WCCR's own open house February 7, and then reappeared a week later at Charlie Hamill's OCTO meet.

Gladden would like to thank Nate Muholland and the crew at West Coast Classic Restoration for helping his dream come true. This one he says is a definite keeper, and he's currently scrambling to make room in his garage so he can store it properly. The next two projects will be built as drivers, with select highway friendly technical improvements like more displacement updated swing axle trannies. He won't have to wait very long; Copp tells us the next one will be going into the paint shop very soon. We'd say it's a fair assessment to label Dane Gladden as one of the luckiest guys we know. Most would be happy with just one of these 23 Windows--nevermind two 23s and a Double Cab. We can't wait to see what comes out of the other two.

The biggest challenge for anyone restoring a Type 2 is making sure the sides are straight. Smoothing out the long, broad sheets of metal is definitely not for a beginner.

WCCR really is a one-stop shop for the vintage resto enthusiast. Upholstery artisan Alex Hernandez replicated the original interior color scheme using all new materials and carpeting.

It doesn't boast a lot of power, because the original 36-horse motor was cleaned up and rebuilt to completely factory specs. The Bus may not have a lot of power, but we guarantee it drives just the way it did in 1958.

Some of these Photos have been e-mailed to me and some taken from the Internet. If you are the original owner of a Copyright and object the publishing, please contact me and I will take the photo off this page. But please remember this is a non-profit site purely for the enjoyment of all We Love Volkswagen's Past, Present And Future.., enthusiasts.

Who's Who of Volkswagen

In no particular order, here are the top 25 people that have created or changed the Volkswagen industry as we now know it. In the course of the next millennium, there will be new names added to this list, but the core movers and shakers of this small car's world will always remain.--By VW Trends

1. Gene Berg: Berg was one of the founding fathers of the high-performance VW industry. He was committed to excellence in his products, a tradition that is carried on today by the company he founded.

Gene Berg

2. Joe Vittone: From such humble beginnings as making a replaceable valve guide for a 36 hp head, grew one of the industry giants. The name Empi will always be remembered for their dedication to quality high-performance VW parts.

Joe Vittone

3. Claude Tomlinson: Since 1956, when he was working on VWs in a barn, Claude Tomlinson started Claude's Buggies, which has metamorphosed into C.B. Performance, one of the leading VW restoration and high-performance shops in the United States.

4. Tom Lieb: From being a VW hot rodder to the founder and President of Scat Enterprises, Tom Lieb has seen some amazing changes in the industry in his almost 40-year career.

5. Ron Flemming and Greg Aronson: From VW gearhead to part owner of FAT Performance, Flemming is one of the originators of the "California Look."

6. Ferdinand Porsche: Without him and his design studio, as well as his vision for a small car for the people, none of this would have been possible.

7. Steve Wood: Wood is one of the premiere names in vintage VW restoration.

8. Bob Gilmore: Also a noted toy collector and VW journalist, Gilmore was one of the founders of the Vintage Volkswagen Club of America in 1976.

9. Ben Pon: An automobile importer, Pon first introduced the VW to the American market in 1949. As well, he is considered to be the father of the Type II because of his initial interest and imput into the project.

10. Dean Lowry: Owner of Deano Dyno-Soars, Lowry was a high-performance pioneer and could be seen at Southern California tracks proving that the little aircooled engines have racing potential.

11. "Dyno" Don Chamberlin: Still going strong after all these years, Dyno Don's howling voice was a mainstay as the emcee at the Bug-Ins and many other West Coast events.

12. Charles Radclyffe: As the British commander of the factory after the war, Colonel Radclyff first realized the potential of Ben Pon's Bus design. As well, he was also responsible for hiring Heinrich Nordhoff in 1948.

13. Ivan Hirst: Heralded as the savior of the Volkswagen, Hirst believed in the Beetle when no one else did by cleaning up the Wolfsburg factory after World War II and producing Volkswagens under the British control.

14. Heinrich Nordhoff: Responsible for the phenominal success of the Volkswagen, Nordhoff took over the plant from the British in 1948 and elevated production and exportation to new levels.

Heinrich Nordhoff

15. Adolf Hitler: Born out of sinister intentions, the Beetle was Hitler's propaganda for helping create unity in pre-war Germany. His influence pushed the project through to production.

16. Al Martinez: He was an early VW event promoter with sponsorship of the car show portion of the California Bug-Ins which continued with the VW Jamboree events. In addition, Al Martinez Body Shop was one of the largest source for the early custom Volkswagens.

17. Richard Kimball: He was the one of the first and longest VW event promoters, parlaying his organizational skills during the early Bug-Ins into one of the largest Volkswagen events in the world, the VW Classic.

18. Ferdinand Piech: Taking over Volkswagen AG in 1993 (when VW was losing over a billion annually), he introduced a ruthless cost-cutting regime, reduced the number of car platforms from 16 to four and added pizzas into an almost dead company. Now VWAG enjoys profits of almost two billion dollars on 75 billion dollars worth of annual sales.

Ferdinand Piech

19. Peter Koller: Koller spent the better part of 1936-'37 designing what would be known as Wolfsburg, the factory and the surrounding town. Being a devout Christian, he included plans for two churches, but they were deleted by Hitler.

20. Bill Collins: Starting the club Der Kafer Fahren for year '57 and earlier VW owners, Collins has inspirered the industry to drive and enjoy their VWs instead of trailering them.

21. Dan Gurney: Driving the original EMPI sedan for Economotors, Gurney proved success is possible for stock motors with a few upgrades at the 1963 Bahama VW Grand Prix in Nassau.

22. Bruce Meyers: Meyers is the off-road pioneer responsible for creating the off-road industry as we know it today. By building the Meyers Manx and winning the Baja 500, he changed the face of off-road competition.

Bruce Meyers

23. Bob Scott: Well before his time, Scott was the founder of Vintage Parts, the first all-vintage parts supply house in the United States.

24. Doyle Dane Bernbrach: Though a small ad agency and not a single person, this small creative group sold an unconventional car to a conventional society.

25. Franz Reimspeiss: Not only is he responsible for creating the time-honored VW logo, but after 20 experimental engines were designed, built and tested, he finally designed an aircooled, four-stroke engine that was cheaper than their original plans.